Periodontology is the branch of dentistry, which deals with the health and problems of the “dental surrounding tissues” consisting of the gums, the bone surrounding the tooth and the fibers that bind the tooth to the bone. The disease of the surrounding tooth tissues is called gum disease. Generally, primary gum disease is called gingivitis and more advanced gum disease is called periodontitis.

Diseased gums are red and bleeding. There is bad breath with the flow of inflammation. Gaps are formed between the teeth and the gums are recessed. This situation causes problems in terms of oral and dental health as well as a bad appearance. If gum problems are not detected and prevented at the initial stage, they may cause irreversible damage to the teeth and surrounding tissues. There may be tooth and bone loss.

What is the cause of bad breath?

Although bad breath (halitosis) can be caused by various diseases related to the general health condition, the biggest source is usually the problems in the mouth. In addition to dental calculus and gum diseases, dry mouth or decreased saliva flow can also cause bad breath. 2 basic ways to eliminate bad breath; to control the bacteria that form sulfur compounds and to destroy the sulfur compounds formed in the mouth. This is possible with good oral care, regular dentist control, dental calculus cleaning and necessary gum treatments.


What are the symptoms of gum disease?

  • Red and swollen gums and bleeding gums. Healthy gums do not bleed even during hard brushing or flossing.
  • Constant bad breath due to bacteria in the mouth.
  • Gaps between teeth due to bone loss.
  • Loss of teeth due to bone loss or poor gum attachment
  • Inflammation flow around the teeth and gums indicates infection.
  • Loss of gum around the tooth, that is, gum recession.
  • Sensitivity and discomfort.


  1. FAQ-1: What are plaque and calculus and why are they bad?

    Plaque is a sticky thin layer formed by accumulation of bacteria, food residuals and saliva. We can see it as a hardened layer of bacteria stuck on tooth surface. Calculus is a denser and bigger dead bacteria layer. It is especially hard to reach and clean when it accumulates in the gap between teeth and gingiva. Bacteria in a plaque produce chemicals harmful for gingiva. They cause gum diseases and the destruction of bone tissue surrounding the teeth. Scientific studies have shown relation of gum diseases with pneumonia and birth complications. Gum diseases affect your overall health and can make the situation worse for existing diseases. To prevent plaque forming and gum diseases brushing the teeth 2 times and flossing once a day and being examined by your dentist at least once a year is recommended. When gum diseases start to be painful it might be too late. Gum diseases at the later stages may not be possible to treat.

  2. FAQ-2: How do I know I have a gum disease?

    20% of patients with gum disease don’t know they have it because it proceeds painlessly in the earlier stages. Though, gum diseases can be detected by signs of gum bleeding and bad breath. If you have these signs you should see a dentist soon.

  3. FAQ-3: What causes gum disease and what increases the risk?
    • Poor and incomplete oral care is the main cause. In addition, the following reasons also increase the risk:
    • Smoking and chewing tobacco
    • Plaque and tartar formation are more likely in smokers than non-smokers.
    • Dental treatments that cause incompatibility.
    • Poor fillings, incompatible coatings and bridges increase plaque buildup.
    • Various Medicines.
    • Steroids, cancer therapy drugs, blood pressure medications, birth control pills. Some medications reduce the amount of saliva, leave the mouth dry and cause more plaque buildup.
    • Pregnancy and Adolescence Period.
    • As there is a change in hormone levels during pregnancy and adolescence, gum tissues become more sensitive to the toxins of bacteria.
    • Systemic diseases
    • Diabetes, blood cell diseases, HIV / AIDS etc.
    • Genetic Factors
    • Some patients may be more prone to more advanced levels of gum disease. People with a family history of tooth loss should pay extra attention to their oral health.
  4. FAQ-4: What must be done for a healthy mouth?

    Brushing twice and flossing once a day should be made a habit

    Brushing teeth at least twice a day, teeth should be cleaned regularly by using dental floss at least once a day. Being examined at least twice a year by your dentist is key.

  5. FAQ-5: What toothbrush should I prefer?

    The purpose of toothbrush is to clean food residuals and removing plaque from teeth and gingiva. They need to be able to reach everywhere to do so. Picking a brush with a small head part could be a good choice. Soft brushes are more effective than hard brushes in cleaning. Pick a brush with medium hardness.

  6. FAQ-6: How often should I change my toothbrush?

    You need to renew your brush every 3 months. Because of microorganism accumulation on the brush, you might hurt your teeth rather then helping them by using old brushes.

  1. FAQ-7: Are electric toothbrushes better?

    Electric toothbrushes are generally devices that apply force in proportion to the dentist’s recommendation. We can evaluate its stain removal potential better than a regular toothbrush in general.

    Normal toothbrushes can be at least as effective as electric ones when used correctly. Those who have physical difficulties in brushing their teeth and those who need motivation to brush may prefer an electric toothbrush. The best brush, whether electric or normal, is the one that is used regularly and effectively.

  2. FAQ-8: What toothpaste should I prefer?

    When picking a toothpaste you might want to stay away from pastes claiming instant whitening. This kind of toothpastes consist of particules like big sand grains which can cause scratching on teeth surface.

    You can consult your dentist about what kind of toothpaste you need for your condition.

  3. FAQ-9: How many times a year should I have my teeth cleaned?

    Patients are recommended to clean calculus 2 times a year Patients are recommended to clean calculus 2 times a year.

    There are also criteria such as the patient’s dental health history, the frequency of tartar accumulation, and the susceptibility to caries in deciding on dental calculus cleaning. It should not be forgotten that the prevention of tartar is one of the factors that prevent gum disease.

  4. FAQ-10: Does calculus cleaning hurt teeth?

    Calculus cleaning is a necessary treatment for oral and dental hygiene. It is not harmful. On the contrary, not having the treatment when you need it is harmful. Dentist pays attention for teeth surface not to get scratched and applies a polissage afterwards. Polissage is like polishing, it smoothes roughness of the surface.

  5. FAQ-11: I drink lot of tea/coffee, is it harmful for my teeth?

    Excessive consumption of caffeine hurts teeth. Appearence and health of your teeth may get hurt.

    Beverages containing caffeine leave stains on teeth. Excessive consumption of coffee, tea or soda leaves you with yellow teeth and brown stains on them.

    Hardest layer of tooth surface is dentine. If this layer is abrased, decay risk increases vastly because the layers underneath are thinner and weaker. Caffeine containing beverages abrase this layer.

    Drinking these beverages with a straw would minimize contact with teeth and decrease stain effect but not many people prefer this method.

  6. FAQ-12: Is it not possible for all teeth to remain in mouth for life?

    If you have the genetic background and care about your oral maintenance and regularly see your dentist it might be possible.

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